Added: Severo Pettaway - Date: 17.01.2022 09:12 - Views: 43062 - Clicks: 5673
Hotel fires present unique challenges for fire departments. It will almost certainly be difficult to gain an accurate ing of the of people in the building at the time of the incident. There are several different types of hotel buildings, including mid- or high-rise hotels at least four stories and low-rise hotels three stories or lessall of which may include several complexes and detached buildings.
Each building type may require somewhat different tactics, and access to some sides of the building may be limited due to the property layout, adjacent or ading buildings, or vehicles present to service the building. To best protect the maximum of hotel occupants, departments should preplan hotels in their district. An unprepared response can result in serious risks to both firefighters and hotel occupants. As such, fire departments must be aware of the types of hotels in their coverage area, what hazards are present in these occupancies and how to best respond to incidents within.
There are several common fire locations in a hotel, including the guest rooms, kitchen or restaurant, laundry rooms, atriums, meeting or banquet rooms, parking garages, attics and roofs. Guest Rooms: Perhaps the most obvious fire location is one of the guest rooms. Fighting a fire in a guest room is not ificantly different than doing so at an apartment complex. To Firefighter at hotel the rest of the occupants in the building, you must contain the fire to the room where the fire started.
Older hotels may feature transoms windows over the doorwhich can allow heat and smoke-and perhaps fire-to be transmitted from the room into the hallway.
As such, the engine company must get to the fire floor as soon as possible to prevent the fire from spreading. Be prepared to make a quick attack to confirm that the fire is out, implement high-capacity ventilation and remove stubborn occupants. However, a fire in the laundry area will also create a great deal of smoke, and employees may stay in the area, attempting to control the fire.
Therefore, anticipate searching for overcome employees. Be prepared to make a quick attack and implement high-capacity ventilation. Close doors that connect to other areas of the hotel to isolate the problem. Atriums: Mid- or high-rise hotels may be deed with an atrium, a central hall that usually features a glass roof or skylight and extends the full height or several stories of a building. The concern with this space: Fire, smoke and heat can easily spread to multiple floors.
When responding to a fire located outside the atrium, ensure that all the doors to the atrium are closed to control the spread of heat and smoke. If a fire alarm sounds anywhere in the building, a smoke-evacuation system may activate, creating the undesired effect of pulling smoke into Firefighter at hotel atrium. These rooms may hold hundreds, if not thousands, of occupants.
Be prepared to rescue numerous victims. Fire tactics in bars and lounges are Firefighter at hotel to those for the meeting and banquet rooms. Protect walls and doors that connect the hotel to the garage. Atrium smoke-evacuation systems may be activated by any fire alarm in the building, pulling in air from in or around the garage.
Additionally, roof construction can vary from plywood and asphalt shingles to plastic- or fiberglass-type insulation that can require large amounts of manpower to vertically ventilate. Hotels built under newer codes likely feature lightweight truss construction, and may also be sprinklered or include some type of firestopping system. But the only way you will know for sure is to get out into your response district and check these buildings. Fire Attack Firefighters must always consider their ability to advance hoselines to all areas of a hotel.
If hotels are equipped with standpipes, firefighters must carry standpipe hose packs of the appropriate length and diameter to attack a fire in any area of the hotel. In some cases, hotels are connected to malls, office buildings or other similar occupancies. Hazardous Materials Hazardous materials, such as cleaning chemicals, may be present in hotel environments.
At one incident in New York, a chlorine-based cleaning agent was mixed with ammonia, creating some nasty fumes. With this in mind, responders must utilize SCBAs to conduct search-and-rescue operations, remove the hazard and ventilate the area.
There should not be ificant amounts of other hazardous materials in a hotel, but only preplanning will reveal this. Such an incident would likely involve an explosive device deed to cause structural damage and multiple casualties. Hotels may also play host to illness that rapidly strikes multiple victims.
Regardless of the type of incident, firefighters must be prepared to isolate the problem, deny entry to others, size-up the hazard and find the proper resources to help determine where they can go and what they can do while minimizing risk. Conducting a search-and-rescue operation in hotel rubble is similar to that of an apartment building or most other buildings with numerous occupants.
The same Firefighter at hotel true of triaging the victims. If this is the case, you must take immediate action to alert guests of the situation and direct them to safe locations. Such actions can be complicated by foul weather, especially if an alternate evacuation location has not yet been identified. Depending on the size of the hotel, evacuation alarms may sound for the entire building or just certain areas or floors.
Determine where an evacuation is necessary, whether the current status of the evacuation alarm system is adequate and whether additional alarms should be activated. This requires at least one or two firefighters who have some knowledge of hotel alarm systems. Further, elevators, which may be connected to the alarm system, will also need to be controlled.
In mid- or high-rise buildings, there are usually controls at the fire alarm panel to bring elevators down to the ground or to an Firefighter at hotel floor. Having access to the panel allows firefighters to control the elevators for their own use, and to prevent people who are unaware of the problem from heading upward. Protection Features Many hotels are sprinklered. Protection from fire will likely involve a wet-pipe system that may be combined with a standpipe system. Firefighters with radios should be stationed at each valve supplying the operating sprinkler system s until full extinguishment of the fire can be confirmed, even after the fire has been controlled.
This ensures that the sprinkler supply valves are not inadvertently closed and that firefighters can quickly reactivate them should a fire suddenly rekindle. Connect lines to the fire department pumper connection on the system, and supply them at the deated pressure; if the deated pressure is not known, pump at psi. Some parts of the hotel may have numerous sprinkler systems and, therefore, numerous fire department connections.
A couple of clues to help you determine which system is operating and, thus, which system you should connect to: an operating water motor gong above or next to the connection, and water discharging from the main drain line below or next to the connection. To be sure, you must survey the building before a fire and clearly mark the correct connections. Hotel kitchens usually include wet chemical discharge systems over the cooking areas. Hotel phone or computer rooms may also have an early-warning smoke-detection system that will require your best investigation skills to determine why the system activated.
These systems sample the air in the protected area and can detect invisible smoke particles that may result simply from overheated wiring. Survey the building in advance to understand why these systems are there and how best to use them at an incident. Stairways or access ladders lead to roofs and can be used to vertically ventilate the building.
Make sure ventilation is performed after victims are removed, unless the tactic is Firefighter at hotel specifically to clear the stairtower so occupants can exit. Depending on the type of hotel, exterior windows may be sealed shut. Determine the necessity and safety of breaking the windows for ventilation purposes.
This can include pressurization of the stairwells. The controls are likely located at a centralized area in the building. Truck companies may need to work hard to establish a good position for their aerial devices. Further, forcible entry will be a challenge in hotels, particularly when attempting to access guest rooms.
Obtain a master key from hotel personnel as quickly as you can. Crews will quickly lose energy if they Firefighter at hotel to manually force these doors, which will probably be equipped with a deadbolt and a chain or crossing-bar locking mechanism. A Final Note As with most other types of occupancies, the most important thing a fire department can do to prepare for hotel incidents is to preplan the buildings. At all hotel incidents, unless the building is vacant, dealing with life-safety issues is the primary concern for the incident commander.
As such, upon arrival, be sure that hotel staff meets up with you and stays with you to assist in providing occupant lists and guiding your response. Think about how you can advance hoselines to all the potential areas in the building. First-arriving firefighters must ensure that evacuation alarms are effectively working and try to isolate the fire so occupants can escape.
Quick, effective action will save lives. Fire Engineering. Barn Boss Leadership. Industry News.
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